The increased production of various types of ENMs (materials that have at least one dimension that is smaller than 100 nanometers) includes a wide range of sectors, from aerospace to cosmetics, foods, electronics, construction and medicine, exponentially growing.

In 2017 the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines on protecting workers from the potential risks of ENMs in the workplace including recommendations and best practices.

In 2018 NIOSH has published papers for an appropriate nanomaterials production and use. To reduce the risks associated with worker exposure to ENMs and byproducts are described control technologies and suitable equipment, tools and work organization.

Since 2011 Inail has published the first White Book to ensure the development of nanotechnologies while respecting the laws of competitiveness and sustainability on the one hand and the reduction of health risks for workers on the other but, at the moment, not all Organizations are already fully compliant with italian  Decree 81/2008 occupational hygiene standards.

All the documents mentioned are a useful tool to support workers and employers in order to improve professional hygiene standards and regulatory compliance.